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Andrew Jackson’s opposition to the Second Bank of the United States was a significant aspect of his economic policy during his presidency. The Second Bank, chartered in 1816, was seen by Jackson as a privileged institution that concentrated too much power and favored the interests of the wealthy elite at the expense of the common people. Jackson’s efforts to dismantle the bank had both positive and negative implications.

Jackson’s opposition to the bank resonated with many Americans who felt that the institution concentrated economic power in the hands of a few and hindered the development of a more egalitarian society. Jackson argued that the bank was undemocratic and operated independently of the will of the people. By opposing the bank, he sought to enhance democratic control over economic affairs and promote a more decentralized financial system. Jackson’s policies were associated with a period of economic growth and expansion in the United States. Critics argue that his opposition to the bank encouraged the development of state banks, which led to increased credit availability and stimulated economic activity in various regions.

The dissolution of the Second Bank of the United States resulted in a period of economic instability. The absence of a central banking system led to financial volatility, uneven regulation, and increased risks in the banking sector. Shortly after the bank’s demise, the United States experienced a severe economic downturn known as the Panic of 1837. Critics argue that the lack of a strong central bank exacerbated the effects of the crisis and prolonged the economic hardships faced by the nation. The opposition to the Second Bank of the United States remains a subject of debate among historians and economists. While some view Jackson’s actions as a defense of democratic principles and a check on concentrated power, others criticize his approach for its potential negative consequences on financial stability.

It is important to note that evaluating the effectiveness of Andrew Jackson’s opposition to the Second Bank of the United States requires considering historical context and a range of perspectives. The long-term impact of Jackson’s opposition to the Second Bank of the United States is a subject of historical debate. Some argue that it decentralized financial power, paving the way for a more diverse and competitive banking system. Others contend that it contributed to economic instability and hindered the country’s financial development. Also, it is worth noting that the abolition of the Second Bank did not eliminate the need for a central banking system. The absence of a central bank until the establishment of the Federal Reserve in 1913 left the United States vulnerable to financial volatility, prompting ongoing discussions on the role and effectiveness of central banking.


Wilentz, S. (2006). Andrew Jackson. In A Companion to 19th-Century America (pp. 249-270). Blackwell Publishing.
Remini, R. V. (2002). Andrew Jackson and the Bank War. W. W. Norton & Company.
Brands, H. W. (2005). Andrew Jackson: His Life and Times. Anchor Books.